3D Printed IQIs for X-ray Examination
These days, when colour images are taken of museum objects it is generally good practice to include a colour calibration chart, like a ColorChecker. This allows the captured images to be colour calibrated and then compared, with reasonable confidence, with other images captured within the same organisation or with image captured using different imaging systems by other individuals or organisations. But his is often not the case when X-ray images are taken of museum objects.
Calibration targets or Image quality Indicators (IQIs), are available for X-radiography and are in fact used in some fields, but they may not be appropriate for all type of cultural heritage X-radiography. In some institutions specialists often construct their own custom IQIs to help ensure the quality of their images. This works well within an institution but is generally less appropriate when comparing images generated by different institutions.
As it is becoming easier and more common to share and compare large complex technical images between different cultural heritage institutions the need for use of consistent IQIs is becoming more important. This is also becoming an increasingly important issue when it comes to comparing X-ray images produced from analogue film and images created using new digital X-ray systems.
One possible option for producing consistent, but custom designed, IQIs, tailor made for the examination of specific groups of cultural heritage materials might be the use of new 3D-printers. This pilot study was put together to begin to explore this possibility.
3D Printed Samples
The following samples where sourced and or prepared by Carinna Parrama.
|1||Envision Tec||Photo-cure Acylic||Direct Light Projecting||25 - 50 Microns||Dark Red|
|3||SLS: EOS P385||Glass Filled Nylon||Selective Laser Sintering||150 Microns||Light Grey|
|4||Object Eden 250||Photo-cure||Poly-Jet Printer||16 - 32 Microns||White|
|5||Z-Corp||Plaster of Paris||Powder based system with a binder using Ink Jet technologies||100 Micorns at 460DPI||Bright White|
National Gallery Examination
Figure 3: The 5 sets of 3D-printed wedges arranged on the window above the X-ray source, along with an unused sheet of the Kodak Industrex AA400 X-ray Film within its paper envelope.
Graphs of IQI profiles for given X-ray Exposures
- Profile graphs for 50KV 1 ma 50 sec
- Profile graphs for 40KV 1 ma 50 sec
- Profile graphs for 30KV 1 ma 50 sec
- Profile graphs for 20KV 1 ma 50 sec
- Profile graphs for 15KV 1 ma 50 sec
Images of IQI X-ray examinations for given Exposures
- High resolution image for 50KV 1 ma 50 sec
- High resolution image for 40KV 1 ma 50 sec
- High resolution image for 30KV 1 ma 50 sec
- High resolution image for 20KV 1 ma 50 sec
- High resolution image for 15KV 1 ma 50 sec